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Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010)

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The report states that EPA has correctly identified the essential major research areas detection, containment, decontamination, and disposal but calls for an initial focus on decontamination and disposal efforts and a longer term research program. Committee on Nonnative oysters in the Chesapeake Bay Etats-Unis 5 editions published between and in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide Nonnative Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay discusses the proposed plan to offset the dramatic decline in the bay's native oysters by introducing disease-resistant reproductive Suminoe oysters from Asia.

It suggests this move should be delayed until more is known about the environmental risks, even though carefully regulated cultivation of sterile Asian oysters in contained areas could help the local industry and researchers.

Environmental Assessment

It is also noted that even though these oysters eat the excess algae caused by pollution, it could take decades before there are enough of them to improve water quality. Groundwater fluxes across interfaces by National Research Council U. These include such tasks as evaluating landslide risks, managing groundwater resources, locating nuclear waste repositories, and estimating global budgets of water and greenhouse gasses. Groundwater Fluxes Across Interfaces focuses on scientific challenges in 1 the spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge, 2 how information at one scale can be used at another, and 3 the effects of groundwater on climate and vice versa.

Health risks of radon and other internally deposited alpha-emitters by U. Science and decisions : advancing risk assessment by National Research Council U. It has been instrumental to the mission of the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA as well as other federal agencies in evaluating public health concerns, informing regulatory and technological decisions, prioritizing research needs and funding, and in developing approaches for cost-benefit analysis.

However, risk assessment is at a crossroads. Despite advances in the field, risk assessment faces a number of significant challenges including lengthy delays in making complex decisions; lack of data leading to significant uncertainty in risk assessments; and many chemicals in the marketplace that have not been evaluated and emerging agents requiring assessment.

Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making.

Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields. Formaldehyde is used to produce a wide array of products, particularly building materials; it is emitted from many sources, including power plants, cars, gas and wood stoves, and cigarettes; it is a natural product in some foods; and it is naturally present in the human body as a metabolic intermediate.

Grade: assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health. Woodruff, TJ, Sutton, P. The navigation guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into better health outcomes. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA releases final TCE health assessment

Trichloroethylene and cardiac malformations. Trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene: a critical review of teratogenicity. Trichloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and congenital heart defects: a critical analysis of the literature. Reprod Toxicol.

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Review of TCE cardiac defects data by Makris et al. Threshold of trichloroethylene contamination in maternal drinking waters affecting fetal heart development in the rat. National Research Council. Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits. European Commission. Modified April 11, Public health goal for trichloroethylene in drinking water. A systematic evaluation of the potential effects of trichloroethylene exposure on cardiac development. Bukowski, J.

Critical review of the epidemiologic literature regarding the association between congenital heart defects and exposure to trichloroethylene. Crit Rev Toxicol. Developmental toxicity testing—methodology. In: Hood, RD , ed. Staples, RE. Detection of visceral alterations in mammalian foetuses. Fresh visceral examination of rat and rabbit fetuses used in teratogenicity testing. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen.

Citation Tools

Wilson, JG. Embryological considerations in teratology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Christian, M. Test methods for assessing female reproductive and developmental toxicology. In: Principles and Methods of Toxicology. Strain differences in response of sprague-dawley and long evans hooded rats to the teratogen nitrofen. Guidelines for developmental toxicity risk assessment. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals: prenatal developmental toxicity study. OECD Adopted January 22, Evidence-based toxicology: a comprehensive framework for causation.

Hum Exp Toxicol. Shepard, TH. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. Woodward, M.

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Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Tobacco use and pregnancy: how does smoking during pregnancy harm my health and my baby? Accessed September 29, United States Surgeon General. The health consequences of smoking years of progress: a report of the surgeon general. Birth defects: risk factors and consequences. J Pediatr Genet. Google Scholar Medline. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview.

Neuropsychol Rev. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy and congenital heart defects in offspring: review of the current evidence. Ital J Pediatr. Maternal periconceptional smoking and alcohol consumption and risk for select congenital anomalies. Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Cardiol. Prenatal alcohol exposure and congenital heart defects: a meta-analysis.

IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (External Review Draft)

PLoS One. Is maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects among offspring? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. A cohort study on workers exposed to trichloroethylene. J Occup Med.

Draft Environmental Assessment

Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study. Environ Health. Association between maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital heart defects, national birth defects prevention study, Occup Environ Med. The effect of maternally inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.

Testing of selected workplace chemicals for teratogenic potential. Scand J Work Environ Health. Cardiac teratogenesis of halogenated hydrocarbon-contaminated drinking water. J Am Coll Cardiol.